Dec 182021
 

Gostava de ter acesso a este artigo: “Using Simple Design features to Recapture the Essence of Real-Time Strategy Games” de Hsuan MIN Wang; Chia-Yuan Hou; Chuen-Tsai Sun

Abstract:
eal-time strategy (RTS) games simulate battlefield leadership and tactical and strategic operations. Most overemphasize the number of actions per minute (APM), which encourages players to click rapidly and constantly rather than apply deliberate and finely tuned strategies or tactics. New RTS games with unconventional game mechanics that reduce APM demand and promote strategic planning are being released. We created three versions of a single RTS game, recruited players, recorded their game control data, and asked them to complete a simple after-game questionnaire. Data were used to analyze tactical and strategic applications. Player actions were observed and player opinions analyzed in an attempt to identify an optimal game structure as measured by strategic and tactical play.

+infos(artigo): LINK

Dec 182021
 

Texto em livro: Artountabilzty: Art and Algorithmic Accountability
de: PETER BOOTHI, LUCAS EVERSZ, EDUARD FOSCH VILLARONGA3, CHRISTOPH LUTZ, FIONA MCDERMOTT5, PIERA RICCIO6, VINCENT RIOUX7, ALAN M SEARSS, AURELIA TAMO-LARRIEUX9 e MARANKE WIERINGA

Abstract:
Given the complexity of the inner working of algorithms and the ulterior effects these systems may have on society, the European Union has begun an ‘Algorithmic Awareness-Building exercise to inform policy-making on algorithmic decisions’ challenges and opportunities. We contribute to this effort by identifying how art can have a strong voice in promoting algorithmic accountability and transparency in the public debate. After introducing algorithmic accountability and transparency concepts, we focus on the cognitive, affective, societal, educational, and ethical functions art can have in realising Europe’s goals.

Discussion and Conclusion:
Individuals’ characteristics and preferences are used to build profiles and combined with automated decision-making to make products and services more precise and effective. While there may be some benefits, algorithmic profiling and automated decision-making processes can impact individuals and society at large, for example, by invading individual privacy or rising inequality. Given the complicated processes in such algorithmic systems and the existing legal framework, there may be a bit of a responsibility gap. Increasing transparency, embedding privacy into the technologies, and raising awareness are commonly proposed to increase accountability in this area. The European Union, for instance, has begun an ‘Algorithmic Awareness-Building’ exercise to inform policy-making on algorithmic decisions, challenges and opportunities. An often overlooked area that could nevertheless contribute is the role of art in this arena. This chapter thus explored how art can have a strong voice in promoting algorithmic accountability and transparency in the public debate.

After introducing the intersection of algorithmic accountability and art, we then elaborated upon the concept of algorithmic accountability and what exactly it constitutes. Algorithmic accountability needs to follow the system’s life cycle, where there are ex-ante, in medias res, and ex-post considerations that should be taken into account. Accountability, wherever it is located in a system’s life cycle, is facilitated and operationalised through other principles such as traceability, reviewability, fairness, and the more abstract principle of transparency. The present contribution in assessing the role of art regarding algorithmic accountability focuses on the more abstract level of transparency.

We then analysed the concept of transparency and its multiple dimensions. Transparency as information makes underlying operations perceivable and detectable, which entails the idea of verifiability and the notion of explainability and inspectability. While this understanding of transparency enables accountability and auditability, this understanding should be embedded within the other dimensions of transparency. One such dimension is performative transparency, Where organisations perform transparency by outlining how it processes data, which it can do in a transparent or opaque manner. Another critical dimension of transparency related to the performativity element is the relational dimension ablllty tocuses on the more abstract level or transparency.

We then analysed the concept of transparency and its multiple dimensions. Transparency as information makes underlying operations perceivable and detectable, which entails the idea of verifiability and the notion of explainability and inspectability. While this understanding of transparency enables accountability and auditability, this understanding should be embedded within the other dimensions of transparency. One such dimension is performative transparency, where organisations perform transparency by outlining how it processes data, which it can do in a transparent or opaque manner. Another critical dimension of transparency related to the performativity element is the relational dimension of transparency. Only with the audience in mind, ie, the information provided is targeted towards the relevant audience, can transparency be effectively performed and lead to accountability. Finally, transparency is embedded within a legal, regulatory, and organisational context. While the GDPR mandates transparency and accountability, a ‘transparency by design’ approach may help in addressing shortcomings.

While attempts to increase the legibility of algorithmic decision-making to bring about accountability are critical, it is also essential to acknowledge the limits of transparency as a responsive action. As Ananny and Crawford have noted concerning calls for transparency around algorithmic decision-making systems, transparency on its own will not mean users can change or influence these systems, as transparency can promote seeing without knowing.

Next, the chapter delved into the role of art in promoting algorithmic accountability and transparency. The five functions of art — cognitive, emotional, social, educational, and ethical — were examined. The cognitive function of art in promot- ing algorithmic accountability and transparency lies in its potential to foster awareness, evoke thought, and challenge existing narratives that may be harmful or considered inappropriate in contemporary times. An important project in this area is the MoRM, which challenges participants to think about how AI systems operate critically. Art also has an emotional or aflective function. An AI produces artwork that engages with AI systems or that can, for example, foster empathy and allow individuals to feel similar to someone affected by an AI system.
In this sense, art broadens perspectives and can potentially create transparency in a more grounded, personal, and relational manner. Also, art has a social function by bringing together different stakeholders around a topic and creating novel communities. By doing so, art might interest new audiences in Al, transparency, and accountability or engage people emotionally. As such, the social function is connected to the other functions of art. The educational function of art fosters the artist’s personal development and a deeper understanding of transparency, enabling alternative design visions that can hold different parties to account and create communities of practice. The ethical function of art addresses what it means to be subject to what algorithms can understand what is correct or not, and more importantly, whether how algorithms function is ethically justifiable or not.

Art has the power to explicate power dynamics and raising awareness of societal issues and could be determinant in shaping a collective and societal understanding of AI societal consequences, increasing the throughput from transparency to accountability. Art can also bring many different stakeholders together, from young audiences to engineers, to policymakers, to vulnerable groups, subject to the discriminatory effect of such systems. Because of the multiplicity of stakeholders and art projects, artwork in general ‘works’ on several levels. First, by making use of the AI technologies, engineers, and the industry use. Second, creating meaning and understanding about the ambiguous, complex, and controversial elements found in the way AI in context is developed and works. Third, by offering itself as an object to reflect upon, being present as a way to question without answering
(being as art should be useful in its uselessness).

(…)

+infos: LINK

Aug 102020
 

É sempre bom quando encontramos malta que seguimos a escrever sobre o tema de videojogos. Desta vez numa revista de acesso aberto e que todos podem ler 🙂
Vol. 5 No. 1 (2020): Videogames and Culture: Design, Art and Education, do qual destaco:
‘Videogametism’: Consolidating the recognition of video games as an art form” por Marco Fraga da Silva
The relation between gamers audiences and gaming industry workforce” por Ivan Barroso

+infos(oficial): LINK

May 262020
 

Learning Java with Games de Xu, Chong-wei, 2018

“This innovative approach to teaching Java language and programming uses game design development as the method to applying concepts.

Instead of teaching game design using Java, projects are designed to teach Java in a problem-solving approach that is both a fun and effective. Learning Java with Games introduces the concepts of Java and coding; then uses a project to emphasize those ideas. It does not treat the object-oriented and procedure and loop parts of Java as two separate entities to be covered separately, but interweaves the two concepts so the students get a better picture of what Java is.

After studying a rich set of projects, the book turns to build up a “Three-layer Structure for Games” as an architecture template and a guiding line for designing and developing video games. The proposed three-layer architecture not only merges essential Java object-oriented features but also addresses loosely coupled software architecture. ”

+infos(oficial): https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319728858

Java in Two Semesters Featuring JavaFX de Quentin CharatanAaron Kans, 2018

“This easy-to-follow textbook teaches Java programming from first principles, as well as covering design and testing methodologies. The text is divided into two parts. Each part supports a one-semester module, the first part addressing fundamental programming concepts, and the second part building on this foundation, teaching the skills required to develop more advanced applications.

This fully updated and greatly enhanced fourth edition covers the key developments introduced in Java 8, including material on JavaFX, lambda expressions and the Stream API.”

+infos(oficial): https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-99420-8

 

May 182020
 

Gostava de ter acesso/access to your article:


Lankoski, P. & Björk, S. (eds.) (2015). Game Research Methods: An Overview. ETC Press.
+infos(editora): LINK


Lankoski, P. & Holopainen, J. (eds.) (2017). Game Design Research: An introduction to theory & practice. ETC Press.
+infos(editora): LINK


Learning, Education & Games, Volume 3: 100 Games to Use in the Classroom & Beyond, editado por Karen Schrier
+infos(editora): LINK

Mar 142020
 

Gostava de ter acesso/access to your article:
S. Wu, “The Development and Challenges of Computational Thinking Board Games,” 2018 1st International Cognitive Cities Conference (IC3), Okinawa, 2018, pp. 129-131.
Savvani S., Liapis A. (2019) A Participatory Approach to Redesigning Games for Educational Purposes. In: Liapis A., Yannakakis G., Gentile M., Ninaus M. (eds) Games and Learning Alliance. GALA 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11899. Springer, Cham
Use of a board game format to promote interprofessional learning. Heather Schmucka, Mary KayArvinb
Peter Drake and Kelvin Sung. 2011. Teaching introductory programming with popular board games. In Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education (SIGCSE ’11). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 619–624. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1145/1953163.1953338
Wang, H., Chen, W., & Sun, C. (2020). Play Teaches Learning?: A Pilot Study on How Gaming Experience Influences New Game Learning. In P. Isaias, & K. Blashki (Eds.), Interactivity and the Future of the Human-Computer Interface (pp. 147-168). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-2637-8.ch008

Feb 242020
 

Gostava de ter acesso/access to your article,
Kosa M., Spronck P. (2019) Towards a Tabletop Gaming Motivations Inventory (TGMI). In: Zagalo N., Veloso A., Costa L., Mealha Ó. (eds) Videogame Sciences and Arts. VJ 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1164. Springer, Cham
Sousa M., Bernardo E. (2019) Back in the Game. In: Zagalo N., Veloso A., Costa L., Mealha Ó. (eds) Videogame Sciences and Arts. VJ 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1164. Springer, Cham
Simons, A., Wohlgenannt, I., Weinmann, M. et al. Good gamers, good managers? A proof-of-concept study with Sid Meier’s Civilization. Rev Manag Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-020-00378-0