Sep 082023

Gostava de ler este artigo “Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) in second language and education research: Guidelines using an applied example” d eDiego Fellipe Tondorf, e Marcelo da Silva Hounsell

“Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an alternative method to the historically more commonly used covariance-based SEM (CB-SEM) when analyzing the data using structural equation modeling (SEM). The article starts by introducing PLS-SEM to second language and education research, followed by a discussion of situations in which PLS-SEM should be the method of choice for structural equation modeling. It is argued that PLS-SEM is appropriate when complex models are analyzed, when prediction is the focus of the research – particularly out-of-sample prediction to support external validity, when data do not meet normal distribution assumptions, when formative constructs are included, and when higher-order constructs facilitate better understanding of theoretical models. The most up-to-date guidelines for applying PLS-SEM are provided, and step-by-step guidance is offered on how to apply the method using an R statistical package (i.e., SEMinR) that is available. An example is provided that shows how the results of PLS-SEM are interpreted and reported. We also make the data publicly available for readers to start learning PLS-SEM by replicating our findings. The paper concludes with important considerations for the utilization of SEM, especially PLS-SEM, in future L2 research.”

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May 022023

Gostava de ler este artigo “The Pursuit of Fun in Digital Games: From the Sandpit to the Console and Beyond” d eDiego Fellipe Tondorf, e Marcelo da Silva Hounsell

“Fun has long been considered inherent in the act of playing. Some authors argue that it is an element always present in games, and others that it is not, that there are several types of fun and several factors that change the perception of fun, but fun has always been associated with positive effects on players. As a subjective concept, and dependent on context and player experience, understanding fun in games is a challenge for developers. With the development of the industry and the research on digital games, it became necessary to create new artifacts for the design and validation of fun. Understanding fun is also essential for serious games, which have been criticized for not being fun. Thus, better understanding fun and how to achieve it is a big challenge where crucial outcomes could benefit application areas such as education, health, and others. But the roadmap for such an area of research has not been established. This chapter presents fun as a grand challenge in games and digital entertainment and proposes a path for future research.”

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Gostava de ler este artigo “Platform for Interactive Audiovisual Productions and Generative Art Using Processing” de P. D‘Amato e Diana Karina Leon

“Through computers, artists have found a way to enhance their production, discovering new ways for communicating their productions and devising new forms of expression. Being able to make the most of these facilities requires interdisciplinary groups that seek to enhance creativity and at the same time generate new forms of creation. In particular, an artist takes advantage of the different tools available, from sound to draws in order to provide immersive experiences. This paper presents a platform that implements image and audio processing algorithms, to facilitate the artist’s task, in what is called generative art. With the platform it is possible to create animated digital images in real time that adapt to the sound’ properties and that can be used in live audiovisual performances.”

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Dec 282022

Gostava de ler este artigo “Video Game Play Any Association With Preteens’ Cognitive Ability Test Performance?” de May Jadallah, C. Shawn Green, e Jie Zhang

“This exploratory study examined the video gaming experience of 160 urban public-school preteen-age students as well as the association between video game play and students’ performance on a standardized cognitive ability test (CogAT), which includes verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal/spatial batteries. Overall, neither duration of play nor video game genres played had significant correlations with the CogAT measures. Similarly, when using an “extreme-groups” approach to examine relations with playing a subset of games previously linked with certain enhancements in cognitive skill (i.e., action video games), no significant effects were observed. These results are thus inconsistent with theories that predict diminished cognitive performance in children who play a great deal of video games, but they are also inconsistent with previous work suggesting possible enhancements in those who play certain types of games. The potential contribution of this null finding and an alternative explanation are discussed..”

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Sep 242022

Gostava de ler este artigo “Introduction on THINKING: Bioengineering of Science and Art” de Nima Rezaei e Amene Saghazadeh

“THINKING: Bioengineering of Science and Art is inclusive of the philosophy of thinking by using different knowledge works. This chapter is, therefore, no longer an attempt to introduce the book. Rather, we notice thoughts of different contexts and many relations among them, giving rise to various sets of integrations. One important result of this introduction is that integrated thinking represents the highest level of development, and scientific thinking may be only one of many integrant elements and a range of integrative relations—the point to which we devote our attention in THINKING: Bioengineering of Science and Art.”

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Aug 052022

SonifyIt: Towards Transformative Sound for All Robots
Brian J. Zhang; Noel Sigafoos; Rabecka Moffit; Ibrahim Syed; Lili S. Adams; Jason Fick; Naomi T. Fitter

do resumo consta:
Transformative robot sound yields perceptual, functional, and social benefits in human-robot interactions, but broader research and implementation related to this topic is impeded by the lack of a common sound generation system for robots. Such a system could enable a wide array of situated robot sound studies, smoother collaborations with sound designers than current state of the art methods, and broader adoption of transformative robot sound. Based on other successful open-source projects in the robotics community, we integrated Robot Operating System, a popular robotics middleware, and Pure Data, a visual programming language for multimedia, to enable live sound synthesis and sample playback for robots. This sound generation system synthesized sound in an in-the-wild pilot study with positive qualitative results. Furthermore, an online within-subjects survey study with N=96 showed that the proposed sound system made the robot seem warmer, happier, and more energetic. This work benefits robotics researchers by providing the current sound system as a validated artifact and demonstrating its potential impact on broader robotics applications. We plan to develop this software into an open-source package: SonifyIt.

Jul 262022

Gostava de ter acesso a estes artigos:
Nintendo® WII? For the Elderly, Yes! : Contributions to a Better Inclusion and Quality of Life for the Elderly
“Video games are aimed at a younger audience, however, with this study we intend to demonstrate that they can also be leveraged with the elderly. The main objective was to investigate whether the Nintendo® Wii has characteristics that allow promoting and improving the inclusion and quality of life of the elderly. In methodological terms, an exploratory study was chosen, because the confinement constraints associated with the pandemic did not allow the participation of a larger group, in which the participant observation method was applied. Data collection was carried out at the Activities Center of a municipality in the district of Castelo Branco, with the participation of three users. After the activities carried out, it appears that video games contribute to the inclusion and quality of life of the elderly, due to the fact that a collaborative environment is felt among the participants, the relaxed and mutual environment and the smiles and laughter that were heard. The fact that they mastered a technological resource was also emphasized because it gave them a feeling of inclusion in a technological world to which, in most cases, they feel on the sidelines. In short, the use of the Nintendo® Wii made it possible to verify that it can promote and contribute to a healthier and more inclusive life for the elderly.”
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Algorithmic Interactions in Open Source Work
“This study focuses on algorithmic interactions in open source work. Algorithms are essential in open source because they remedy concerns incompletely addressed by parallel development or modularity. Following algorithmic interactions in open source allows us to map the performance of algorithms to understand the nature of work conducted by multiple algorithms functioning together. We zoom to the level of algorithmic interactions to show how residual interdependencies of modularity are worked around by algorithms. Moreover, the dependence on parallel development does not suffice to resolve all concerns related to the distributed work of open source. We examine the Linux Kernel case that reveals how algorithmic interactions facilitate open source work through the three processes of managing, organizing, and supervising development work. Our qualitative study theorizes how algorithmic interactions intensify through these processes that work together to facilitate development. We make a theoretical contribution to open source scholarship by explaining how algorithmic interactions navigate across module rigidity and enhance parallel development. Our work also reveals how, in open source, developers work to automate most tasks and augmentation is a bidirectional relationship of algorithms augmenting the work of developers and of developers augmenting the work of algorithms..”
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Developing Games with Data-Oriented Design
“Data-Oriented Design (DOD) is a software design process used in the commercial game industry for medium to large scale (AAA) games that revolves around data as the central design focus. Since DOD grew organically from industry practices, it has been viewed primarily as a set of tools and design patterns without a cohesive core. After studying data-oriented design, it has become clear that there is one core motivating concept behind DOD and that is that software exists to input, transform, and output data. In order to demonstrate the core concept and tools of DOD, examples are shown. The history and focus of DOD are discussed as well as how DOD is used in current commercial software..”
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Feb 132022

Gostava de ter acesso a este artigo:
“Do Real-Time Strategy Video Gamers Have Better Attentional Control?”
Do real-time strategy (RTS) video gamers have better attentional control? To examine this issue, we tested experienced versus inexperienced RTS video gamers on multi-object tracking tasks (MOT) and dual-MOT tasks with visual or auditory secondary tasks (dMOT). We employed a street-crossing task with a visual working memory task as a secondary task in a virtual reality (VR) environment to examine any generalized attentional advantage.

Similar to action video games, RTS video games require players to switch attention between multiple visual objects and views. However, whether the attentional control advantage is limited by sensory modalities or generalizes to real-life tasks remains unclear.

In study 1, 25 RTS video game players (SVGP) and 25 non-video game players (NVGP) completed the MOT task and two dMOT tasks. In study 2, a different sample with 25 SVGP and 25 NVGP completed a simulated street-crossing task with the visual dual task in a VR environment.

After controlling the effects of the speed-accuracy trade-off, SVGP showed better performance than NVGP in the MOT task and the visual dMOT task, but SVGP did not perform better in either the auditory dMOT task or the street-crossing task.

RTS video gamers had better attentional control in visual computer tasks, but not in the auditory tasks and the VR tasks. Attentional control benefits associated with RTS video game experience may be limited by sensory modalities, and may not translate to performance benefits in real-life tasks.

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Dec 182021

Gostava de ter acesso a:
“Studying interrelations of computational thinking and creativity: A scoping review (2011–2020)” de Rotem Israel-Fishelson, Arnon Hershkovitz

do resumo surge:
Both computational thinking (CT) and creativity have been recognized as key skills for today’s learners. Over the last decade, research of both skills in a single context has emerged. In this paper, we present a scoping review of 62 such empirical from 2011 to 2020. Our goal was to have a thorough understanding of the educational settings in which research on both CT and creativity was conducted, the theoretical foundations it has laid down, and the research tools used. Our findings indicate a geographical bias (dominance of the US and prominence of developed European countries), as well as a focus on secondary education and on STEM-related disciplines; this could be explained by the current situation of CT spread. We also found that when studying CT and creativity jointly, it is most common to define CT in a broader perspective than merely programming of computer science. Additionally, while creativity is largely referred to as product-related, CT is barely referred to as such. Taken together, our findings point out some gaps in the current research of CT and creativity and suggest how it should be expended on the fertile grounds of creativity, as the latter crosses geographical, age, and subject borders. Doing so may build a bridge between CT and creativity in a way that will benefit both.

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Dec 182021

Gostava de ter acesso a este artigo: “Using Simple Design features to Recapture the Essence of Real-Time Strategy Games” de Hsuan MIN Wang; Chia-Yuan Hou; Chuen-Tsai Sun

eal-time strategy (RTS) games simulate battlefield leadership and tactical and strategic operations. Most overemphasize the number of actions per minute (APM), which encourages players to click rapidly and constantly rather than apply deliberate and finely tuned strategies or tactics. New RTS games with unconventional game mechanics that reduce APM demand and promote strategic planning are being released. We created three versions of a single RTS game, recruited players, recorded their game control data, and asked them to complete a simple after-game questionnaire. Data were used to analyze tactical and strategic applications. Player actions were observed and player opinions analyzed in an attempt to identify an optimal game structure as measured by strategic and tactical play.

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Dec 182021

Texto em livro: Artountabilzty: Art and Algorithmic Accountability

Given the complexity of the inner working of algorithms and the ulterior effects these systems may have on society, the European Union has begun an ‘Algorithmic Awareness-Building exercise to inform policy-making on algorithmic decisions’ challenges and opportunities. We contribute to this effort by identifying how art can have a strong voice in promoting algorithmic accountability and transparency in the public debate. After introducing algorithmic accountability and transparency concepts, we focus on the cognitive, affective, societal, educational, and ethical functions art can have in realising Europe’s goals.

Discussion and Conclusion:
Individuals’ characteristics and preferences are used to build profiles and combined with automated decision-making to make products and services more precise and effective. While there may be some benefits, algorithmic profiling and automated decision-making processes can impact individuals and society at large, for example, by invading individual privacy or rising inequality. Given the complicated processes in such algorithmic systems and the existing legal framework, there may be a bit of a responsibility gap. Increasing transparency, embedding privacy into the technologies, and raising awareness are commonly proposed to increase accountability in this area. The European Union, for instance, has begun an ‘Algorithmic Awareness-Building’ exercise to inform policy-making on algorithmic decisions, challenges and opportunities. An often overlooked area that could nevertheless contribute is the role of art in this arena. This chapter thus explored how art can have a strong voice in promoting algorithmic accountability and transparency in the public debate.

After introducing the intersection of algorithmic accountability and art, we then elaborated upon the concept of algorithmic accountability and what exactly it constitutes. Algorithmic accountability needs to follow the system’s life cycle, where there are ex-ante, in medias res, and ex-post considerations that should be taken into account. Accountability, wherever it is located in a system’s life cycle, is facilitated and operationalised through other principles such as traceability, reviewability, fairness, and the more abstract principle of transparency. The present contribution in assessing the role of art regarding algorithmic accountability focuses on the more abstract level of transparency.

We then analysed the concept of transparency and its multiple dimensions. Transparency as information makes underlying operations perceivable and detectable, which entails the idea of verifiability and the notion of explainability and inspectability. While this understanding of transparency enables accountability and auditability, this understanding should be embedded within the other dimensions of transparency. One such dimension is performative transparency, Where organisations perform transparency by outlining how it processes data, which it can do in a transparent or opaque manner. Another critical dimension of transparency related to the performativity element is the relational dimension ablllty tocuses on the more abstract level or transparency.

We then analysed the concept of transparency and its multiple dimensions. Transparency as information makes underlying operations perceivable and detectable, which entails the idea of verifiability and the notion of explainability and inspectability. While this understanding of transparency enables accountability and auditability, this understanding should be embedded within the other dimensions of transparency. One such dimension is performative transparency, where organisations perform transparency by outlining how it processes data, which it can do in a transparent or opaque manner. Another critical dimension of transparency related to the performativity element is the relational dimension of transparency. Only with the audience in mind, ie, the information provided is targeted towards the relevant audience, can transparency be effectively performed and lead to accountability. Finally, transparency is embedded within a legal, regulatory, and organisational context. While the GDPR mandates transparency and accountability, a ‘transparency by design’ approach may help in addressing shortcomings.

While attempts to increase the legibility of algorithmic decision-making to bring about accountability are critical, it is also essential to acknowledge the limits of transparency as a responsive action. As Ananny and Crawford have noted concerning calls for transparency around algorithmic decision-making systems, transparency on its own will not mean users can change or influence these systems, as transparency can promote seeing without knowing.

Next, the chapter delved into the role of art in promoting algorithmic accountability and transparency. The five functions of art — cognitive, emotional, social, educational, and ethical — were examined. The cognitive function of art in promot- ing algorithmic accountability and transparency lies in its potential to foster awareness, evoke thought, and challenge existing narratives that may be harmful or considered inappropriate in contemporary times. An important project in this area is the MoRM, which challenges participants to think about how AI systems operate critically. Art also has an emotional or aflective function. An AI produces artwork that engages with AI systems or that can, for example, foster empathy and allow individuals to feel similar to someone affected by an AI system.
In this sense, art broadens perspectives and can potentially create transparency in a more grounded, personal, and relational manner. Also, art has a social function by bringing together different stakeholders around a topic and creating novel communities. By doing so, art might interest new audiences in Al, transparency, and accountability or engage people emotionally. As such, the social function is connected to the other functions of art. The educational function of art fosters the artist’s personal development and a deeper understanding of transparency, enabling alternative design visions that can hold different parties to account and create communities of practice. The ethical function of art addresses what it means to be subject to what algorithms can understand what is correct or not, and more importantly, whether how algorithms function is ethically justifiable or not.

Art has the power to explicate power dynamics and raising awareness of societal issues and could be determinant in shaping a collective and societal understanding of AI societal consequences, increasing the throughput from transparency to accountability. Art can also bring many different stakeholders together, from young audiences to engineers, to policymakers, to vulnerable groups, subject to the discriminatory effect of such systems. Because of the multiplicity of stakeholders and art projects, artwork in general ‘works’ on several levels. First, by making use of the AI technologies, engineers, and the industry use. Second, creating meaning and understanding about the ambiguous, complex, and controversial elements found in the way AI in context is developed and works. Third, by offering itself as an object to reflect upon, being present as a way to question without answering
(being as art should be useful in its uselessness).


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